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What are The Types of Bariatric Surgery?

By December 30, 2019 February 14th, 2020 No Comments

Obesity is one of the biggest issues grappling the world population today. Obesity is not just about the weight but the condition that attracts a lot of life-threatening diseases like diabetes, heartstroke, blood pressure. Obesity is measured in terms of Body Mass Index (BMI). If the person has a BMI of 30 to 35 it is termed as class 1 obesity while a BMI of 35 to 40 is called class 2 and BMI of 40 and above is termed as class 3 obesity. Class 2 and 3 are considered severe conditions of obesity which cannot be treated by diet and exercise.

For such severe condition bariatric surgery is one solution that can be used as a treatment. This a surgical procedure is done to the digestive system because of which the patient’s hunger, as well as the amount of food the one consumes, gets reduced. Hence the patient starts losing weight thus getting out of extreme obesity.

Types of bariatric surgery

There are four major types of bariatric surgeries, all of them bypass (go past or around) the small intestine and some of them reduce stomach size. Your doctor will help determine which type of surgery is best for you based on your medical history and weight loss goals.

  1. Adjustable gastric banding
  2. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass
  3. Biliopancreatic diversion with a duodenal switch
  4. Vertical sleeve gastrectomy

Bariatric surgery is not just meant for anyone. This procedure is suggested only when all other options like medicines, diet, and exercise have failed to work. So Bariatric surgery could be an option for you if:

  • Your body mass index (BMI) is class 3 ( 40 and above )
  • Your body mass index is class 2 (35- 39.9) and you are suffering from serious health issues such as type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure or severe sleep apnea. Also in some cases, patients with a BMI of 30 to 34 could also qualify for the procedure in case of serious weight-related problems.

Factors that are considered when choosing the surgery include:

How can you decide which bariatric surgery is best for you? We break down the options.

  1. Adjustable gastric banding

In this type of bariatric surgery, an inflatable band made of silicone is placed around the top portion of the stomach. This band reduces the intake area of the stomach which inturn makes the patient feel fuller with less amount of food thereby helping him/her lose weight and obesity. Although just the procedure in itself won’t help reduce obesity, the patient has to opt for healthier eating options along with regular exercise. This being a surgical procedure, it is no way an easy option to reduce obesity but compared to other surgical option gastric banding is the least intrusive with minimal recovery time plus it is a reversible procedure, so in future, if the patient wants to remove the band then it can be done through a ‘Keyhole’ surgery. Also, there is no part of the stomach that’s removed or stapled or the intestines re-routed, hence the patient will be able to absorb all the nutrients from the food normally.

  1. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass

This one of the most common types of surgery preferred by patients and has been in practice for more than 30 years. This procedure provides an excellent balance of weight loss and minimal side effects. This procedure can be performed in 2 ways, either by laparoscopy(small incisions to the abdomen) or robotically (computer-assisted surgery that helps in the surgical procedures).

In this procedure, the surgeon separates the upper as well as the lower portion of the stomach. Once done the upper portion of the “pouch” is then connected to a limb of the small intestine, which’s called “Rouxlimb”. This new stomach pouch being small restricts the amount of food you can eat, making you feel full even after consuming a small amount of food. Once the smalle pouch is created, the surgeon then reroutes your digestive system which bypasses the larger part of your stomach and part of your small intestine. This overall makes the body absorb fewer nutrients from the food you eat thereby promoting weight loss.

  1. Biliopancreatic diversion with a duodenal switch

The Biliopancreatic diversion with a duodenal switch is a less common surgical procedure opted by the patient for weight loss. The procedure happens in 2 major steps.

The first step is known as sleeve gastrectomy in which about 80 percent of the stomach is removed, leaving a small portion of the tube-shaped stomach that is a size of a banana. But the valve that releases food to the small intestine remains, along with a limited portion of the intestine that’s generally connected to the duodenum.

In the second step bypasses the major part of the intestine by connecting the end of the intestine to the duodenum. Hence this procedure limits the proportion of food that can be consumed by the patient as well as reduces the absorption of nutrients that includes nutrients and fats. Both these steps are generally performed together but for some cases, it could be performed separately. This extreme procedure is performed only for the patient whose BMI is more than 50 as there are serious side effects like malnutrition, vitamin deficiency etc.

  1. Vertical sleeve gastrectomy

The Vertical sleeve gastrectomy was earlier known as the first step of Biliopancreatic diversion with a duodenal switch but owing to the procedures standalone advantage and relative simplicity, it started to be offered as a separate procedure. This surgery is typically performed laparoscopically that involves inserting small tubes through multiple small incision in the upper abdomen. In this procedure, around 80 percent of the stomach is removed leaving just a tube-shaped stomach that’s a size of a banana. Limiting the size of your stomach restricts the amount of food you could consume making you feel full very soon. Also, there are some hormonal changes that could happen post the procedure which further assists your body in weight loss

Ruby Hall Clinic: India’s finest weight loss surgery hospital

Ruby Hall clinic has been at the forefront of weight loss related surgery that includes bariatric surgery. With the most modern and cutting edge medical devices and state of the art facility along without highlyskilled and experienced doctors, we work towards giving you the best roadmap to weight loss journey that not just includes the surgery but even post-surgical guidance by our expert nutritionist as well as a physician.

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